OSMOS Transversal Planning

The way stakeholders are engaged can make a significant difference in how a problem is perceived and can be the source of early confusion, friction and frustration. The Penta-helix is a simple discussion tool to map interests and explore ways of keeping a project balanced.


For the identification of key stakeholders we have used the ‘Penta-Helix Model’ which is based on categorising five stakeholder types: businesses, public administration, local residents, the knowledge sector and capital.

This model is very useful for multi stakeholder problem areas where stakeholders have a range of interests on a site or problem.  Stakeholders that have too many interests can disrupt a project by not being clear about their objectives. The Penta-Helix Model firstly helps in analysing a mix of stakeholders; those that may be actively involved in the project (co-producers) and others that are simply involved due to the nature of the project (co-operators).  Secondly, as this model deals with samples of interests, it means that stakeholders are representing a ‘type’ of interest that may include other stakeholders like them.  Thus stakeholders become representatives for a certain interest area rather than focusing exclusively on their own ends.

Each type of stakeholder can be represented at different levels: the local (or micro), the regional (or meso) and the national/international (or macro) level.  This can also changes the type of interest.